This question has unfortunately come up many times on our website... for a related comment I've made with links to many others I've made at the end, read this.
Generally, I'm sorry that you had this experience with acupuncture. To put your mind at ease, it is not impossible but generally -extremely, extremely- unlikely that there is any permanent damage to your nerves. Although 10 days is a long time to experience any discomfort from acupuncture. Pain, fear, and improper technique can go a long ways towards wreaking havoc and there is no better place to experience this than in some school clinics unfortunately.
As far as what to do, assuming there was nerve damage, there is next to nothing that can be done within the realm of western medicine for this besides pain pills and a wait and see approach and acupuncture -is- used for all types of pain and neuropathy - so a good acupuncturist should be all you need. I don't know what school you went to, but I'm not sure I would go back to the same student at the least...
If you are sensitive to needles, you can try someone who practices Japanese acupuncture which tends to be lighter approaches with smaller guage needles, but a good practitioner should make any size needle with any technique seem pain free... What you have, generally speaking, (before this treatment) should have been near trivial to treat, so I'm concerned about the student and the supervisor's skill level... but not knowing the details there isn't much I can say besides sorry this happened, whatever damage that may have been done is generally minimal and should clear in 3-4 weeks max, and find another practitioner to treat you and you should be fine. The pain patches will most likely do nothing for you if the nerves were heavily irritated, but they are generally harmless to try.