What is really going on in the body when frequent urination and urgency occur with positive urine test?
The shortest answer is simply inflammation. There are other aspects certainly of low level feedback loops that the body will try to “eliminate” the infection by fostering these types of functions.
You weren’t asking this but generally speaking UTI’s (acute and/or chronic) are near trivial to treat in Chinese Medicine in most cases. The best responses come from the most tailored formula(s) to you as an individual, so consulting directly with a practitioner in your area (see “how to choose a formula” for more on why). In many cases, however, San Jin Wan and/or Ba Zheng Wan are often enough, in other cases either something completely different or one or both of those combined with something else to fully the deeper more systemic issues.